A prototype vaccine for Ebola may be “up to 100 per cent effective” in protecting against the deadly virus, the World Health Organization (WHO) said on Friday.
If all goes well, the vaccine could become available in 2018 under a fast-track approval process, it said.
In a major clinical trial, nearly 6,000 people in Guinea were given the test vaccine last year, at the tail end of a lethal epidemic of Ebola. Not one of the 6,000 contracted the disease.
But in a control group of volunteers that did not receive the vaccine, 23 Ebola cases occurred, researchers reported in The Lancet medical journal.
“If we compare zero to 23, this strongly suggests that the vaccine is very effective, that it could be up to 100 percent effective,” Marie-Paule Kieny, WHO’s assistant director-general and lead author of the study, told AFP.
Her team of three dozen researchers calculated a 90-per cent likelihood during a full-fledged epidemic that the vaccine, dubbed rVSV-ZEBOV, would work in more than 80 percent of cases.
“After 40 years, we appear to now have an effective vaccine for Ebola virus disease to build upon,” Thomas Geisbert, a scientist at Galveston National Laboratory in Texas who did not take part in the study, wrote in a commentary, also in The Lancet.
First identified in 1976 in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Ebola virus erupted periodically in outbreaks of up to a couple hundred cases, mainly across west and east Africa.
In early 2014, however, a handful of infections in southern Guinea mushroomed rapidly into an epidemic.
With a mortality rate above 40 per cent, the disease — one of a category of so-called haemorrhagic fevers — has an incubation period of up to three weeks. It causes violent and painful symptoms, including vomiting, diarrhoea, organ failure and internal bleeding.
The new vaccine was initially developed in Canada by public health authorities before being taken over by pharmaceutical giant Merck.
It is slated to be submitted by Merck to health authorities in the United States and Europe sometime next year under a fast-track approval process.
In the meantime, Merck has committed to ensuring that 300,000 doses of the vaccine are available for emergencies under a protocol called “compassionate use”.